Cognitive abilities of pigs

Some videos that address pigs’ cognitive abilities…

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Concept clarification “high blood pressure”

“You may not have had high blood pressure Sunday, but you may have it today. Even if your blood pressure hasn’t changed a smidge. What’s up?”

Your blood pressure did not change.

The concept did not change. (It’s still “high blood pressure”.)

The criteria changed. In other words, the conditions that qualify one as having “high blood pressure” changed.

Read the article here.

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Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness in Non-Human Animals

In 2012, a group of neuroscientists signed the Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness, which asserts that “humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness. Non-human animals, including all mammals and birds, and many other creatures, including octopuses, also possess these neural substrates.”

video link: here
Resources from the 2012 conference: here
More about the conference, and declaration: here and here

Posted in Animal ethics, Ethical issues, How should we act?, Perception, Rights, Sentience | Leave a comment

The Psychology of Cows

http://www.newsweek.com/cow-cattle-animal-intelligence-science-personalities-emotion-697979

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Moral Behavior in Animals

Speaker: Frans de Waal
video link: here

In this video, de Waal covers various experiments that test reciprocity & fairness, and empathy & compassion, in primates, elephants, and other animals.

Posted in Animal ethics, Anthropomorphism, Perception, Personhood | Leave a comment

The Trolley Problem in Episode 19 of “The Good Place”

(Thanks Alexandrea, for the heads up on this)

“Netflix is particularly fond of the trolley experiment, which was featured in the most recent seasons of two of its original shows this past summer. In the penultimate episode of Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt’s third season, the protagonist Kimmy takes a college philosophy class, learns about the trolley problem, and becomes obsessed with utilitarianism. Similarly, in a Season 5 episode of Orange Is the New Black—not so subtly titled “Tied to the Tracks”—a character uses the trolley problem to explain the “classic deontological dilemma” of whether to sacrifice one woman for the greater good” (more here)

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Chimps play ultimatum game

video link: here

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Waiting Room Policy

What should the policy be?

A clip from Curb Your Enthusiasm…

Posted in Critical thinking, Egoism, Ethical issues, What is the best policy? | Leave a comment

Is Data sentient? Can he reason?

Is Star Trek’s Commander Data a sentient being? Can he reason?

Explore possible answers to those questions in the episode titled “The Measure of a Man”.

View the clip here.

Posted in Conceptual analysis, Critical thinking, Duty ethics, Ethical issues, Perception, Personhood, Reason, Rights, Sentience | Leave a comment

Conceptual Analysis

A brief introduction to a common practice in contemporary philosophy
By Andrew Cullison

Several more resources

http://libguides.usc.edu/humanitiesresearch/conceptual

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/analysis/

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Animal Sentience Journal

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

http://animalstudiesrepository.org/animsent/

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Has reasoned thinking lost its power?

Speakers:
Rebecca Newberger Goldstein & Steven Pinker

Posted in Critical thinking, Logical argument, Reason, Socratic dialogue | Leave a comment

Bonobo intelligence

Speaker: Susan Savage-Rumbaugh
video link: here
Kanzi the bonobo @ Wikipedia: here

“… There were Tasmanians who were discovered around the 1600s and they had no fire. They had no stone tools. To our knowledge they had no music. So when you compare them to the Bonobo…”

“We found that the most important thing for permitting Bonobos to acquire language is not to teach them. It’s simply to use language around them, because the driving force in language acquisition is to understand what others, that are important to you, are saying to you. Once you have that capacity, the ability to produce language comes rather naturally and rather freely.”

Posted in Animal ethics, Anthropomorphism, Perception, Personhood, Sentience | Leave a comment

Robot Ethics

One problem is that the concept of “harm” is complex, context-specific and is difficult to explain clearly to a robot. If a robot doesn’t understand “harm”, how can they avoid causing it? “We realized that we could use different perspectives to create ‘good’ robot behavior, broadly in keeping with Asimov’s laws,” says Christoph Salge, another scientist involved in the study.

Article:

https://phys.org/news/2017-07-empowering-robots-ethical-behavior.html

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The Problem of Perception

“Many people can’t tell when photos are fake. Can you?”

http://www.niemanlab.org/2017/07/people-have-trouble-a-detecting-faked-images-and-b-identifying-where-theyve-been-changed/

Posted in Epistemology, Perception | Leave a comment

Animal Rights

Speaker: Steven Wise
video link: here

“But being human and being a legal person has never been, and is not today, synonymous with a legal person. Humans and legal persons are not synonymous.”

“On the one side, there have been many human beings over the centuries who have been legal things. Slaves were legal things. Women, children, were sometimes legal things.”

“…on the other side are legal persons, but they’ve never only been limited to human beings. There are, for example, there are many legal persons who are not even alive. In the United States, we’re aware of the fact that corporations are legal persons. In pre-independence India, a court held that a Hindu idol was a legal person, that a mosque was a legal person. In 2000, the Indian Supreme Court held that the holy books of the Sikh religion was a legal person, and in 2012, just recently, there was a treaty between the indigenous peoples of New Zealand and the crown, in which it was agreed that a river was a legal person who owned its own riverbed.”

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Trolley Problem in Orange is the New Black

Season 5, Episode 8

http://ew.com/recap/orange-is-the-new-black-season-5-episode-8/

Thanks for the heads up Sydney!

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What is your criteria?

Numb3rs “Mind Game”

00:10:04 … whether they admit to it or not.

00:10:06 – Thank you for destroying any confidence I had in public safety.

00:10:09 – What is your criteria for this categorical dismissal of parapsychological phenomena?

00:10:13 – Reality.

00:10:16 – Oh, yes, reality. What would that be? Newtonian reality? Einsteinian reality? Quantum reality?

http://www.subzin.com/quotes/S446449805/Numb3rs/Mind+Games/What+is+your+criteria+for+this+categorical+dismissal+of+parapsychological+phenomena%3F

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Technology Issues Jackpot

A great source for ethical dilemmas and policy issues in science and technology:

http://reillytop10.com/

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Justification of Cockroach Cyborgs

Is it ethical to sell kits that turn cockroaches into cyborgs?

Here’s a company that does exactly that: www.backyardbrains.com

… and here’s the introduction of their explanation of their justification:

Our experiments are not philosophically perfect and without controversy; however, we believe the benefits outweigh the cost due to the inaccessibility of neuroscience in our current age. We have received several messages from adults and parents of children with neurological afflictions thanking us for making neuroscience easier to understand. We are constantly surveying the animal kingdom for easier and less invasive ways of unequivocally demonstrating neural activity. The cockroach leg preparation is the best we have found so far.

Some disagree, and that is important. Our methods raise many ethical questions including

  • Are animal experiments for educational purposes valid?
  • What is the proper way to treat fellow creatures of the Earth?

In our classroom demonstrations we do discuss these ethical positions and take them seriously. Here we outline our ethical stance on the use of insects for education.

How many standards of ethical conduct are being appealed to here? What standards, specifically? Do any of the standards that are being appealed to here conflict?

Posted in Critical thinking, Ethical issues, How should we act?, Logic, Logical argument, Moral philosophy, What is the best policy? | Leave a comment

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

http://www.npr.org/programs/ted-radio-hour/399796647/maslows-human-needs

Posted in Basic needs, Care ethics, Conceptual analysis, Social contract, Values | Leave a comment

Prisoners Dilemma

Episode details

Numb3rs | “Dirty Bomb”
Season 1 Episode 10 | Aired: 04/22/2005
Don must find the hijackers of a truck carrying nuclear waste before they detonate a dirty bomb in Los Angeles.

Resources

Posted in Logical argument, Prisoners Dilemma, Social contract, Thought experiments | Leave a comment

Kill 1 or 5 or….. 6?

Thanks Keaton for sending this my way!

Posted in Philosophy humor, Thought experiments, Trolley problem | Leave a comment

Do rivers qualify for personhood?

“Three Rivers are now legally people…”

Read all about it here.

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“But I don’t even know what a person is…”

Speaking of persons, a very wonderful one named Hibaq, who is currently in one of my Ethics courses, sent me this via email today; she said it reminded her of one of the topics we recently discussed in class.

Posted in Conceptual analysis, Personhood, Philosophy humor | Leave a comment

“A better way to argue about politics”

https://www.theatlantic.com/video/index/520737/a-better-way-to-argue-about-politics/

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Animal psychology

Speaker: Laurel Braitman
video link: here

On understanding other minds: “… just because you ask someone that you’re with…how they feel doesn’t mean that they can tell you. They may not have words to explain what it is that they’re feeling, and they may not know. It’s actually a pretty recent phenomenon that we feel that we have to talk to someone to understand their emotional distress. Before the early 20th century, physicians often diagnosed emotional distress in their patients just by observation.”

On anthropomorphizing: “…there’s actually an entire industry that is in some ways based on anthropomorphizing well, and that is the psychopharmaceutical industry… One in five Americans is currently taking a psychopharmaceutical drug, from the antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications to the antipsychotics. It turns out that we owe this entire psychopharmaceutical arsenal to other animals. These drugs were tested in non-human animals first, and not just for toxicity but for behavioral effects.”

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Utilitarianism

Series: Numb3rs
Season: 1
Episode: 3
Episode title: Vectors

When they apprehend Weaver, toward the very end of the episode:

Step back off the curb, away from the church.

Is all this truly necessary? You wanted to prove your virus was more powerful, so you tested it on innocent people?

Yes. I had to, to save lives.

Save lives?

If the vaccines and treatments are made from the wrong pathogen, and the Spanish flu reemerges, which I assure you it will, we will not be ready millions will die.

So you justify these deaths to save more lives later.

If you had been around deadly pathogens as long as I have, you would understand that I had no choice, Agent. They are unforgiving we have to take every possible measure to protect innocent people.

Did you think I was planning to release the virus again? … I have no reason to do that … We’ve already established that our strain is the more deadly releasing it again would be insane.

Script source: here
Episodes: here
Numbers episodes by math topic: here
Episode summaries here

Posted in How should we act?, Moral philosophy, Utilitarianism | Leave a comment

Don’t Judge Too Quickly

video link: here

Posted in Critical thinking, Epistemology, Logic, Perception, What led to that conclusion? | Leave a comment

Women’s March discussion resources

https://www.womensmarch.com/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-MfW1YvYcRU

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/womens-march-on-washington-dc-push-back-against-new-president-donald-trump/

Posted in Critical thinking, Ethical issues, How should we act? | Leave a comment